In 20 BC Augustus transferred Armenia minor and Rough Ciliciato Archelaus. According to Strabo, Archelaus spent most of his time on the island of Elaiussa (Ayas, Erdemli) in Rough Cilicia. Here he founded the city of Elaiussa, which allowed him to use the epithet “Ktistes” (founder) on his coins. As an expression of his gratitude to Augustus he changed the name of the city to Sebaste, the Greek form of Augustus which possessed the additional meaning of “sacred”. Archelaus also founded a city bearing his own name (Archelais) (after the conversion of Cappadocia into a province Claudius transformed this city into a Roman colony). On the king’s death very shortly afterwards the kingdom of Cappadocia was officially transformed into a Roman province (Provincia Cappadocia) (17 AD). On assuming the status of a Roman province, Cappadocia began to be ruled by a governor (procurator) chosen from the Equestrian order.

After over three centuries of Roman rule over Cappadocia the region was inherited by the Eastern Roman Empire, which came into being with the partition of the empire in 395. Constantinus I (Constantine the Great) had declared Byzantium to be the eastern capital in 330, and the Western imperial line ended in 476, leaving the Eastern Roman Empire to outlive the West by nearly thousands years. This was what came to be known in modern times at the Byzantine Empire.